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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 55-58

Relationship between FACED and Bronchiectasis Severity Index in the evaluation of bronchiectasis severity: Cross-sectional study


Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Balıkesir University, Balıkesir, Turkey

Date of Submission13-Apr-2019
Date of Decision20-May-2019
Date of Acceptance09-Jul-2019
Date of Web Publication30-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hikmet Coban
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Balikesir University, Balikesir
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ejop.ejop_34_19

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  Abstract 

INTRODUCTION: In the same patients with bronchiectasis, it is aimed to compare the bronchiectasis severity scoring questionnaires (Bronchiectasis Severity Index [BSI] and FACED), which are two different scorings validated for the prognosis of the disease.
METHODS: A cross.sectional study was performed in 94 patients (51 males and 43 females) who were diagnosed with bronchiectasis. The severity of bronchiectasis was calculated according to FACED and BSI scores of all patients and relationship between the severity of both scorings were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied to paired samples after both scorings were grouped according to the bronchiectasis severity.
RESULTS: Frequency of patients with mild, moderate, and severe FACED was 59 (62.8%), 27 (28.7 %), and 8 (8.5%), respectively. There were 41 (43.6%), 23 (24.5%), and 30 (31.9%) patients with low, intermediate, and high BSI was, respectively. The mean scores of FACED and BSI were 2.0 } 1.9 and 6.6 } 4.8, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was observed between FACED and BSI scores (P < 0.001). Both scores were statistically different when evaluated according to the severity of bronchiectasis (P < 0.001), and the FACED scale illustrated the lowest scores. The percentage of similarity was found 62.7% among the both scales. It was showed a 68% similarity between the two scales by Kappa test (P < 0.001).
DISCUSSION: Patients tend to score with a higher BSI compared to the FACED score, although the correlation between the two scales is statistically significant. This situation may be due to evaluation of body mass index, hospitalization, exacerbations, chronic colonization by other microorganisms, and the presence of cystic bronchiectasis in the BSI score.

Keywords: Bronchiectasis, Bronchiectasis Severity Index, FACED


How to cite this article:
Coban H. Relationship between FACED and Bronchiectasis Severity Index in the evaluation of bronchiectasis severity: Cross-sectional study. Eurasian J Pulmonol 2020;22:55-8

How to cite this URL:
Coban H. Relationship between FACED and Bronchiectasis Severity Index in the evaluation of bronchiectasis severity: Cross-sectional study. Eurasian J Pulmonol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 1];22:55-8. Available from: https://www.eurasianjpulmonol.com/text.asp?2020/22/1/55/283627




  Introduction Top


Bronchiectasis develops in relation to various etiologies, associated with symptoms such as cough, sputum, and hemoptysis.[1] The effective treatment approach and evidence-based management recommendations for the evaluation and follow-up of bronchiectasis are not sufficient. Evaluating the severity of the disease in bronchiectasis is necessary to obtain better treatment results. It is difficult to evaluate bronchiectasis alone due to the lack of a valid and simple method of measurement. Traditionally, in previous reports, the severity of the disease was represented by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1).[2] Reiff et al. and Bhalla et al. scores in high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) were evaluated to assess disease severity.[3],[4] However, FEV1 was not effective in making clinical decisions, correlation of HRCT scores with lung function was poor.[5] Therefore, a new scoring system was developed to evaluate the severity of bronchiectasis. FACED score (F: FEV1, A: age, C: colonization, E: number of affected lobes, D: dyspnea) and Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI)[6],[7] were designed as two multidimensional bronchiectasis severity rating scales to evaluate the prognosis of bronchiectasis in recent years. FACED score is a five-point rating system that estimates mortality in patients who have been followed for 5 years. BSI is a nine-item scale defining the risk for death, hospitalization, and exacerbations.

Harmony and similarity between the FACED and BSI scores were not adequately investigated. Is there a similarity between the paired groups between the both scoring? This study aimed to compare the outcomes of FACED and BSI scores for the evaluation of bronchiectasis severity in the same patients.


  Methods Top


The patients who were followed by Sakarya Training and Research Hospital Pulmonology Department and confirmed to have bronchiectasis by HRCT, according to British Thoracic Society guide. Patients diagnosed with immunodeficiency, allergic pulmonary aspergillosis, primary siliceous dyskinesia, secondary bronchitis, heart failure, malignancy, pregnancy, chronic renal failure, antibiotics, steroids, and acute exacerbation in the last month are excluded from the study. One-hundred and seventeen patients who met these criteria were included in the study. Permission of the ethics committee received from Sakarya University Medical Faculty Ethics Committee.

FACED and Bronchiectasis Severity Index scoring and grading

FACED score contains five variables. These are %FEV1, age, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, radiological prevalence, and dyspnea assessment with the Medical Research Council scale (MRC), and total score is obtained range from 0 to 7 points. It is evaluated in three groups as mild (0–2), moderate (3–4), and severe bronchiectasis (5–7) based on the total score.

BSI score includes nine variables. These are age, body mass index (BMI), %FEV1, hospitalization in the last 2 years, number of attacks in the last year, dyspnea evaluation with MRC scale, P. aeruginosa colonization, colonization with other microorganisms, radiologic prevalence and/or cystic bronchiectasis, and total score is scored between 0 and 26. BSI is classified as low (0–4), intermediate (5–8), and high (9 and over).

The similarity between the two scales was assessed by Fishers' exact and tau-b Kendall tests. BSI and FACED scales were grouped according to the severity of bronchiectasis and the relationship between the paired samples was done by Wilcoxon test. The similarity between the Paired samples was evaluated by the Cohens' kappa test.


  Results Top


[Table 1] shows the characteristics of 94 patients with bronchiectasis studied. The averages of FACED and BSI scores of these patients and the numbers and percentages of mild, moderate, and severe bronchiectasis patients according to both scorings are shown in [Figure 1]. With regard to FACED score, 59 patients (62.8%) with mild bronchiectasis, 27 patients (28.7%) with moderate bronchiectasis, and 8 patients (8.5%) with severe bronchiectasis [Figure 1]. The mean derived FACED score was 2.0 ± 1.9. According to the BSI score, 41 patients (43.6%) with low BSI score, 23 patients (24.5%) with intermediate BSI score, and 30 patients (31.9%) with high BSI score [Figure 1]. The mean derived BSI score was 6.6 ± 4.8.
Table 1: General characteristics of the patients ıncluded in the study

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Figure 1: Distribution of the patients by the FACED and Bronchiectasis Severity Index scores

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It was determined a significant relationship between FACED and BSI scores using Fisher's exact (P < 0.001) and tau-b Kendall tests (0.677; P < 0.001). Similarity of the FACED and BSI scores according to the severity is shown in [Table 2]. Wilcoxon test was applied to paired samples after both scorings were grouped according to bronchiectasis severity, the two scales being significantly different (P < 0.001) and the BSI scale showed the highest scores [Table 3]. A 62.7% similarity (59 equations/94 = 0.627) was found between the two scales by this test. It was founded 68.1% similarity between the two scales by using Cohen's Kappa test (κ = 0.408, P < 0.001).
Table 2: Percentage similarity of the FACED and Bronchiectasis Severity Index scores according to the severity for paired samples

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Table 3: Wilcoxon and Cohens' Kappa test for paired samples

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  Discussion Top


Nowadays, we are faced with two groups of patients in the management of bronchiectasis. A group of patients including the patients with increased symptoms, frequent exacerbations, a risk of rapid pulmonary function decline, complications, and more closely monitored at specialist centers; the other patient group is low-risk patients who do not require specialist follow-up and they are suitable for simpler treatment regimens. Thus, it will be possible to increase the cost of health and patient satisfaction in patients with bronchiectasis.

There are two scales called FACED and BSI, which are used to evaluate the severity and prognosis of bronchiectasis. There are some convenience and difficulties in the use of FACED and BSI scales. FACED contains five variables, and the score of this scale is easy to obtain, calculate and interpret. The BSI scale contains nine variables and each variable has different values. Due to these qualities, BSI is a more complex scale than FACED both scales are divided into severe risk categories. In addition, different purposes have been used to develop these two scales. The FACED is specifically developed to predict the probability of mortality in a 5-year follow-up of bronchiectasis. In the development of BSI scale, mortality, severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization, frequency of exacerbations, and quality of life were prioritized.[7]

Although FACED score shows a significant prognostic capacity in the evaluation of bronchiectasis, it does not include the number or severity of exacerbations. Because of this feature, the predictability of exacerbations and mortality rates of the FACED scale is low. E-FACED, a new scale, was developed in order to overcome this deficiency. E-FACED score significantly increased FACED capacity to predict future annual exacerbations and the prognostic capacity for mortality and simplicity was maintained.[8]

McDonnell et al. have shown that FACED and BSI satisfactorily predict the mortality of bronchiectasis but demonstrated that BSI is superior to FACED for clinical predictions of hospital admissions, exacerbations, quality of life, respiratory symptoms, exercise capacity, and decreased lung function.[9] Ellis et al. have shown that both scoring systems developed to assess long-term mortality predictability have similar predictive power for 5-year mortality. Both scales predicted 15-year mortality, and the estimated capacity of FACED was found to be superior for 15-year mortality.[10] Minov et al. found that BSI was similar to FACED score in assessing bronchiectasis severity.[11] Costa et al. found that BSI was clinically more effective in evaluating bronchiectasis severity according to the FACED score.[12] In the study conducted by Coban and Gungen, it was shown that significant heterogeneity was present the patient groups, in which bronchiectasis severity was assessed. A significant correlation was determined between both scorings.[13]

In this study, patients tend to score with a higher BSI than FACED. This situation can be explained that there are no parameters such as BMI, hospitalization, chronic colonization by other microorganisms, and exacerbations on the FACED scale. In the calculation of the BSI score, age, level of dyspnea, and expected FEV1% parameters may be contributing to the different scoring.

There are limitations that need to be specified by this study. Since there is a limited number of patients and due to being a cross-sectional study, this study does not provide the predictive capacity for mortality. Our results do not prove that the application of BSI or FACED can improve clinical outcomes, and more studies are needed to determine how these measures can have an impact on clinical practice.

As a result, the severity and prognosis of bronchiectasis is a multivariate pathology, and it cannot be sufficiently analyzed by a single variable. Therefore, FACED and BSI are validated multivariate scoring systems that provide accurate assessment of the severity and prognosis of bronchiectasis. BSI contains more variables than FACED, and patients had a tendency to score with higher BSI than FACED.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Guan WJ, Gao YH, Xu G, Lin ZY, Tang Y, Li HM, et al. Aetiology of bronchiectasis in Guangzhou, Southern China. Respirology 2015;20:739-48.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Torrego A, Haque RA, Nguyen LT, Hew M, Carr DH, Wilson R, et al. Capsaicin cough sensitivity in bronchiectasis. Thorax 2006;61:706-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Reiff DB, Wells AU, Carr DH, Cole PJ, Hansell DM. CT findings in bronchiectasis: Limited value in distinguishing between idiopathic and specific types. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165:261-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Bhalla M, Turcios N, Aponte V, Jenkins M, Leitman BS, McCauley DI, et al. Cystic fibrosis: Scoring system with thin-section CT. Radiology 1991;179:783-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Restrepo M, Elborn JS. Bronchiectasis severity: Time to score. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014;189:508-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chalmers JD, Goeminne P, Aliberti S, McDonnell MJ, Lonni S, Davidson J, et al. The bronchiectasis severity index. An international derivation and validation study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014;189:576-85.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Martínez-García MÁ, de Gracia J, Vendrell Relat M, Girón RM, Máiz Carro L, de la Rosa Carrillo D, et al. Multidimensional approach to non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: The FACED score. Eur Respir J 2014;43:1357-67.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Martinez-Garcia MA, Athanazio RA, Girón R, Máiz-Carro L, de la Rosa D, Olveira C, et al. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: The E-FACED score. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017;12:275-84.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
McDonnell MJ, Aliberti S, Goeminne PC, Dimakou K, Zucchetti SC, Davidson J, et al. Multidimensional severity assessment in bronchiectasis: An analysis of seven European cohorts. Thorax 2016;71:1110-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ellis HC, Cowman S, Fernandes M, Wilson R, Loebinger MR. Predicting mortality in bronchiectasis using bronchiectasis severity index and FACED scores: A 19-year cohort study. Eur Respir J 2016;47:482-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Minov J, Karadzinska-Bislimovska J, Vasilevska K, Stoleski S, Mijakoski D. Assessment of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis severity: The FACED score vs the bronchiectasis severity index. Open Respir Med J 2015;9:46-51.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Costa JC, Machado JN, Ferreira C, Gama J, Rodrigues C. The bronchiectasis severity index and FACED score for assessment of the severity of bronchiectasis. Pulmonology 2018. pii: S2173-5115 (17) 30154-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Coban H, Gungen AC. Is there a correlation between new scoring systems and systemic inflammation in stable bronchiectasis? Can Respir J 2017;2017:9874068.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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