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  Most popular articles (Since April 27, 2018)

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Chest drain size: Does it matter?
David J McCracken, Ioannis Psallidas, Najib M Rahman
January-April 2018, 20(1):1-6
Pleural disease is common with an increasing incidence and so represents a significant proportion of the workload for respiratory physicians. Chest drain insertion continues to be considered a mainstay of pleural disease management however the optimum drain size required for various pleural conditions remains unclear. Traditionally large-bore chest drains were inserted through a surgical technique of blunt dissection however smaller bore Seldinger (guidewire) drains have dramatically increased in popularity in recent times most likely due to ease of insertion and perceived increased patient tolerability. Despite British Thoracic Society Guidelines advocating a preference for small-bore chest drains, their use remains controversial. We aim to review the literature in each category of pleural disease including pneumothorax, malignant pleural effusion and pleural infection, regarding chest drain size, comparing the role, effectiveness and complications of each.
  7,767 809 1
How to optimize aerosol drug delivery during noninvasive ventilation: What to use, how to use it, and why?
Arzu Ari
January-April 2019, 21(1):1-8
Much evidence supports the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in patients who have acute and chronic respiratory failure and aerosolized medications are increasingly used in this patient population. Successful application of aerosol therapy during NIV depends on the effectiveness of the drug deposition in the lungs. Previous evidence showed that many factors impact aerosol delivery to patients receiving NIV. Those factors include mode of ventilation, ventilator parameters, type of ventilator circuit, the position of the aerosol device, the location of leak port, type of exhalation valve, humidity, enhanced condensational growth, type of aerosol device, and interface as well as delivery technique. The purpose of this paper is to review the available evidence related to aerosol therapy during NIV and provide recommendations to optimize aerosol drug delivery to patients receiving NIV.
  6,047 609 -
The sleep quality of nurses and its influencing factors
Merve Tarhan, Aylin Aydin, Ersin Ersoy, Levent Dalar
May-August 2018, 20(2):78-84
BACKGROUND: It is a known fact that nurses who are obliged to maintain the continuity of quality and safety patient care have a serious risk of sleeping problems. From this point of view, the study was conducted to determine the sleep quality of nurses and its influencing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive-cross-sectional study was carried out on 152 nurses working at a training and research hospital in Istanbul. A questionnaire form including Individual Characteristics Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) was used to collect data. Descriptive tests, Chi-square test, Spearman's correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: It was determined that 61.9% of nurses had poor sleep quality. While a weak positive correlation was found between PSQI, ESS, and HAD-D, a moderate correlation was determined between PSQI, FSS, and HAD-A. Age, working shifts, anxiety, and fatigue levels were found to be factors influencing sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study show that sleep quality of nurses is low in approximately two-thirds of them, and factors such as older age, night shift work, and high anxiety and fatigue levels have a negative effect on sleep quality. It is thought that the regulation of working life considering age, professional experience, and mental health status may be effective in order to increase the sleep quality of nurses.
  5,498 666 -
Can neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio be used in differential diagnosis of Stage I sarcoidosis from tuberculosis lymphadenopathy?
Cengiz Ozdemir, Sinem Nedime Sökücü, Seda Tural Önür
January-April 2018, 20(1):22-26
OBJECTIVE: It is challenging to differentiate mediastinal lymph node enlargement caused by tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis as both diseases may cause granulomatous inflammation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as possible markers in the differential diagnosis of Stage I sarcoidosis and TB lymphadenopathy in patients who present with mediastinal lymph nodes and no parenchymal involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 TB, 55 sarcoidosis, and 32 control patients, whose clinical records were available, were included in this retrospective study. All patients had a granulomatous reaction revealed on their lymph node biopsy specimen. The complete blood count at the time of diagnosis was included in the study. RESULTS: NLR and PLR were both significantly increased in Stage 1 sarcoidosis patients compared to controls while only PLR was significantly increased in the TB group (for sarcoidosis, NLR P < 0.001 and PLR P < 0.001; for TB, NLR P = 0.12; PLR P = 0.017). There were neither significant differences in serum NLR nor PLR between sarcoidosis and TB groups. CONCLUSION: Although NLR and PLR are useful tools to differentiate Stage 1 sarcoidosis from controls and PLR may be used to differentiate TB lymphadenopathy from controls, these parameters may not be used to differentiate between Stage 1 sarcoidosis and TB lymphadenopathy.
  5,313 517 2
Does anthracosis reported in endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration exclude metastasis?
Serhat Erol, Ceyda Anar, Onur Fevzi Erer, Zekiye Aydogdu, Serir Aktogu
January-April 2018, 20(1):12-16
OBJECTIVES: In some studies, it has been hypothesized that anthracotic pigmentation in mediastinal lymph nodes is a sign of benign conditions and excludes metastasis from thoracic and extrathoracic malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of mediastinal lymph node anthracosis in cancer patients who underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, medical data of patients with lung cancer or extrathoracic cancer who underwent EBUS-TBNA for investigation of mediastinal lymph node metastasis were evaluated retrospectively. EBUS-TBNA cytology reported as anthracotic pigmentation was included in this study. Patients were excluded from the study if cytology of aspirated lymph nodes reported as “benign,” “malignancy,” or “granulomatous inflammation.” RESULTS: There were 50 eligible patients. Thirty-one (62%) patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for lung cancer staging and 19 (38%) for evaluation of extrathoracic metastasis. A total of 120 lymph nodes were sampled. The most sampled station was subcarinal. EBUS-TBNA was false negative in eight of 31 (25.8%) lung cancer patients and one of 19 (5.2%) extrathoracic malignancy patients. CONCLUSIONS: Anthracotic pigmentation of lymph nodes in EBUS-TBNA cannot exclude metastasis in lung cancer patients and mediastinoscopy should be performed before surgery in this group. In patients with extrathoracic malignancy, anthracotic pigmentation is associated with benign conditions. However, further investigation with larger cohort is needed.
  4,885 475 1
Fatal aspiration of iodine oral contrast
Zeljko Vucicevic, Vesna Vucelic
January-April 2018, 20(1):50-52
We report on a case of massive iodine oral contrast aspiration with consequential cardiorespiratory arrest. The patient was successfully resuscitated and treated with mechanical ventilatory support and an urgent bronchoscopy toilet with only modest success. Instead of esophagography, the X-ray image showed an almost classical “bronchography.” A few hours later, the chest X-ray was indicative of acute noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory status additionally deteriorated due to bilateral pleural effusions, severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart failure, and the patient died of multiorgan failure 8 days after admission to the Intensive Care Unit. The incidence of fatal complications of oral iodine contrast aspiration is very rare but can be even lower if fully cooperative, and well-instructed patients are selected. Special attention should be paid to those with any kind of swallowing difficulties.
  4,746 294 -
Prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery: Is proportion of emphysema important?
Tevfik Ilker Akcam, Seyda Ors Kaya, Onur Akcay, Ozgur Samancilar, Serpil Sevinc, Seher Susam, Kenan Can Ceylan
January-April 2018, 20(1):7-11
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative evaluation in thoracic surgery is highly important to determine surgical suitability, estimate postoperative pulmonary complications, and for patient follow-up. However, there is neither a definite explanation about the possible complications nor a gold standard method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 297 patients undergoing anatomic lung resection for primary lung carcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. To form a homogeneous group, all factors that increase the rate of pulmonary complication were excluded except emphysema. Patients who did not meet these criteria were removed from the study. The study continued with 104 other patients. This patient subgroup was divided into groups according to Goddard Classification– Score (GdCS). The correlation between GdCS and other variables was statistically investigated. RESULTS: According to the GdCS of 104 patients, the patient distribution was as follows: 10 patients (9.6%) were G0, 28 patients (26.9%) were G1, 42 patients (40.4%) were G2, 22 patients (21.2%) were G3, and 2 patients (1.9%) were G4. Thirty-five (33.6%) of 104 patients had a pulmonary complication during the postoperative follow-up. The average drainage time was longer for higher GdCS scores, and the rate of exposition to a pulmonary complication was higher in the patients with increased GdCS. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, Goddard's scoring for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-emphysema patients was considered likely to be an indicative parameter in the preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up of thoracic surgery patients.
  4,533 489 -
Tobacco and COVID-19
Ozlem Sonmez, Zeynep Atam Taşdemir, H Volkan Kara, Sule Akçay
August 2020, 22(4):12-15
Tobacco and its products are the well-known causes of premature deaths associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as they constitute a significant risk factor that increases the tendency to respiratory system infection and other systemic infections. Active tobacco use and passive smoking increase the risk of infection. Both increase peribronchial and alveolar inflammation and fibrosis and mucosal permeability, cause inadequate mucociliary cleaning, damage to the respiratory tract epithelium resulting in fibrosis, and they adversely affect cellular and humoral immunity. Smoking has been known to increase the risk for viral infections and influenza. Similar data have been approved found for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Smoking is reported to be associated with the frequency of the disease and its severity of the clinical course. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 penetrates the cell using the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. Such receptor proteins had been shown to increase in smoker individuals. Also, smoking facilitates penetration of the virus into the cell. The frequency of smoking and the rates of admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation, and mortality have been also found to be higher was higher in severe cases. The risk for disease progression was found to be 14-fold higher in smokers. Further, the World Health Organization emphasized similar negative effects of hookah and new tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products. It is vital to underline the adverse effects of tobacco and tobacco products and to raise awareness among the public and to make efforts to smoking on every opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public awareness campaigns during the pandemic must always accompanied by the methods and strategies to avoid active and passive smoking.
  4,713 201 -
Features of endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancy and positron emission tomography-computerized tomography findings
Coskun Dogan, Seda Beyhan Sağmen, Elif Torun Parmaksız, Ali Fidan, Nesrin Kıral, Banu Salepçi, Sevda Şener Cömert
January-April 2018, 20(1):37-42
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate radiological and bronchoscopic aspects of endobronchial metastases (EBMs) from extrapulmonary cancers and the correlation of EBM with findings of integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent bronchoscopic evaluation between January 2013 and December were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with endobronchial lesions in the airways and histopathologically diagnosed with extrapulmonary cancer metastasis were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients with EBM who underwent bronchoscopic biopsies were evaluated. The patients consisted of 10 (62.5%) females and 6 (37.5%) males and the mean age was 61.8 ± 9.1. The common primary cancer related to EBM was breast 9 (%56.4). The mean interval from diagnosis of primary cancer to EBM was 55.1 ± 48.5 (1–180) months. A total of 13 (81.2%) cases were assessed with the PET-CT report. The mean SUVmaxvalue of the lung lesions was calculated as 9.8 ± 4.3. According to PET-CT, 92.4% of the cases had extrapulmonary metastasis. The mean survival duration from diagnosis of EBM was 8.5 ± 6.7 (1–21) months in 9 deceased patients. CONCLUSION: The most frequent extrapulmonary primary tumors with endobronchial metastasis were breast and the mean survival time was usually short. It was reported that most cases were multimetastatic. It was concluded that PET-CT can play a role in identifying the EBM and other organ metastasis and was important tool in planning the treatment.
  4,411 402 1
Can the da Vinci robotic system be alternative to open surgery for schwannoma in posterior mediastinum?
Erkan Kaba, Tugba Cosgun, Kemal Ayalp, Alper Toker
January-April 2018, 20(1):17-21
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the outcomes and technical details of patients who underwent surgical resection for benign schwannoma with the da Vinci robotic system are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the scope of our robotic surgery program, 26 (8.7%) patients out of 296 patients were operated using the da Vinci robotic system. Five patients (19.2%) who underwent surgery of benign schwannoma were included in the study. Prospectively, collected data of these patients were retrospectively evaluated. Age, gender, robot docking and console times, length of hospital stay, anatomic localizations of the lesions, pathology results, blood infusion needs, and mortality and morbidity rates of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: All patients were male, and the mean age was 43.2 ± 12.1 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 3 ± 0.9 days. The mean console time was 27.6 ± 18.8 min, and the mean docking time was 12 ± 4 min. None of the patients received blood transfusion. Utility incision was made in only one patient. Postoperative ptosis was detected in two patients with tumors where located in the apical region, and no mortality occurred. CONCLUSION: Due to the advantages of robotic surgery to the surgeon, patients with schwannoma in extreme locations that would pose challenges in dissection could be operated with da Vinci system.
  4,405 353 -
Meandering pulmonary vein: Very rare incidental finding
Murat Serhat Aygun, Mustafa Çalık, Saniye Goknil Çalık
January-April 2018, 20(1):43-45
Meandering pulmonary vein (MPV) is a rarely seen pulmonary vascular anomaly and confused with the scimitar syndrome which is more commonly seen. In this paper, we presented a case of left MPV which mimes arteriovenous malformation. A 30-year-old man was referred to our clinic for pulmonary nodule detected in routine evaluation before employment examination. Diagnosis of MPV was made by Pulmonary CT angiography. It showed abnormal drainage of upper lob pulmonary vein to the inferior pulmonary vein and form abnormal common pulmonary vein which shouldn't be exist. Because of any symptoms no further examination was recommended. According to our best knowledge to date only 17 cases reported in the literature. MPV diagnosis has been significantly changed by the means of advances in CT technology. Non-invasive diagnosis is possible with modern multisectional CT that clearly shows the anatomy of veins and enables the detailed MPV examination. Hereby, unnecessary radiological examination or surgery can be prevented.f veins and enables the detailed MPV examination.
  4,373 354 1
Waterpipe (narghile, hookah) tobacco smoking-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia
Ali Nihat Annakkaya, Ege Güleç Balbay, Özlem Öztürk, Binnur Önal, Fuat Aytekin, Öner Balbay
January-April 2018, 20(1):46-49
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is characterized by a febrile illness, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and pulmonary eosinophilia. A temporal relationship has been described in a number of patients between the development of AEP and the recent onset of cigarette smoking. A 22-year-old male patient with no known chronic disease was admitted to the emergency service for 3 days with the complaints of cough, fever, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. He was formerly a nonsmoker but was a waterpipe (narghile, hookah) tobacco smoker as a new habit once a night for the last 2 months. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are elevated. Arterial blood gases revealed moderate hypoxemia. Computed tomography scans included bilateral, random, and patchy ground-glass opacities and also small bilateral pleural effusions. Echocardiograhic examination was normal. We had accepted the patient as an acute eosinophilic pneumonia due to rapid response to corticosteroid treatment, no microorganism in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture, and predominant eosinophilia was observed (70%–80%) in BAL.
  4,173 288 -
The effect of cognitive functions on the ability to learn how to use a Diskus device in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Baykal Tulek, Nart Bedin Atalay, Ercan Kurtipek, Gülfem Yildirim, Fikret Kanat, Mecit Süerdem
January-April 2018, 20(1):27-32
OBJECTIVE: Dry powder inhalers are a group of inhaled medications commonly used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although they can be more easily administered than metered dose inhalers, there is a high rate of errors in device use. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between the ability to learn how to use a Diskus device and cognitive functions in patients with COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 30 inhaler-näive patients who were newly diagnosed with COPD. During their first visit, patients were administered a broad array of standardized neuropsychological tests and given a training on inhaler use. During the second visit, patients were divided into two groups according to their performance in the use of Diskus device: effective and ineffective. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients who completed the study showed a negative correlation between the cognitive test scores and Diskus training parameters. The number of errors and duration of training increased as the cognitive scores decreased. In Visit 2, a comparison between patients with ineffective and effective use of the Diskus device showed that cognitive function scores were higher in those with effective use. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of cognitive functions in COPD patients is important in establishing an effective inhalation treatment.
  3,960 318 -
Relationship between hematological examination, glucose, HbA1clevel, and disease stages in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Erhan Ugurlu, Ilknur Can, Mehmet Sercan Ertürk, Ismail Hakki Akbudak, Nese Dursunoglu, Sibel Ozkurt
January-April 2018, 20(1):33-36
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an episodic disease that is characterized by intermittent partial interruption of breathing during sleep, which results in low oxygen levels in organs and tissues. The characteristic symptoms of OSAS include snoring, apnea or hypopnea, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Our aim is to determine the early diagnosis of diabetes and to initiate treatments for OSAS patients according to the results of polysomnography (PSG) in the sleep polyclinic based on fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels in patients with known OSAS without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who applied to the sleep polyclinic of the Pamukkale University and were diagnosed with OSAS using PSG were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients with OSAS and a control group consisting of 47 people meeting these criteria were included. Compared with the control group, the patient groups showed significantly higher Hb values (P < 0.05) and lower mean corpuscular volume (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between glucose levels and mean O2saturation values in patients with severe OSAS (apnea–hypopnea index > 30) (r = −0.583, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, even though significant differences were not found in the glucose and HbA1c levels of patients with OSAS, glucose metabolism was deteriorated when saturation was decreased in severe OSAS. Therefore, glucose levels should be observed frequently, particularly in severe cases of OSAS or in patients with hypoxia, regardless of the stage. More attention should also be paid to the development of diabetes.
  3,732 302 -
Molecular genetics of lung cancer
Yasemin Cicek, Pinar Aslan Kosar, Önder Öztürk
September-December 2018, 20(3):111-117
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers with high mortality and is described as one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is classified into two main histological groups: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC). Using tobacco products is the most important risk factor for lung cancer development and appears to be responsible for 80%–90% of total lung cancers. It is thought that lung cancer is the end result of exposure to environmental risk factors in people with genetic susceptibility. Lung cancer cells contain many genetic alterations such as mutation, amplification, insertion, deletion, and translocation. The information obtained from research suggests that these genetic changes are also associated with characteristics such as smoking status, race, and gender. Significant progress has been made in the last 10–15 years to understand the molecular basis of lung cancer, and the discovery of oncogenic precursor mutations has created new pathways in the NSCLC classification and has also provided new therapeutic targets for anticancer therapy. With the introduction of targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase in the treatment of adenocarcinomas in an effective manner, personalization of treatment strategies has become especially important for advanced lung cancer patients. The 2015 World Health Organization guideline for the classification of lung cancer recommends the preservation of pathologic specimens for molecular examinations and emphasizes the importance of molecular testing in the individualized treatment of advanced lung cancer patients.
  3,278 578 -
The Course of Renal Functions in COPD. Two Statition: Exacerbation and Stable Period
Ayse Baha, Nalan Ogan, Evrim Eylem Akpinar, Can Ateş, Meral Gülhan
January-April 2019, 21(1):63-68
OBJECTIVE: Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important factors that determine the prognosis of the disease. However, there are few studies about renal dysfunction. We aimed to compare the renal functions in COPD patients with stable and exacerbation periods and to determine the frequency of acute renal failure (ARF) during exacerbation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The files of 320 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <70% in pulmonary function test) who were admitted to our hospital between 2015 and 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. After exclusion criteria, 113 patients were included in the study. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical method. RESULTS: Ninety (80.4%) of the patients were male and 23 (19.6%) were female. In the exacerbation period, blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.001), creatinine (P < 0.001), white blood cell (P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), and sedimentation (P < 0.001) were higher than that in the stable period. Furthermore, hemoglobin (P = 0.021) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P < 0.001) were significantly lower. The number of emergency department admission in patients with eGFR <60 ml/min during the exacerbation more than the patients with eGFR ≥60 ml/min. Twenty (17.7%) patients have developed ARF during exacerbation (eGFR <60 ml/min). CONCLUSION: In COPD exacerbation period, kidney function is affected negatively in most patients (even if it does not reach the ABY border) and tends to improve in the stable period. In patients with COPD, it is thought that the causes of respiratory failure negatively affect renal function.
  3,582 273 -
Potential treatment of COVID-19
Omer Ayten, Cengiz Özdemir, Ülkü Aka Aktürk, Nazan Şen
August 2020, 22(4):35-44
Following the first reported cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology at the end of 2019 in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China, the causative agent was demonstrated to be a new coronavirus that has not been defined in humans before. The World Health Organization (WHO) named this virus as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease caused by the virus as coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The disease spread rapidly to other countries through human-to-human transmission, and WHO declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. As of April 2020, the number of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 related deaths continue to increase rapidly worldwide. The main reason for the increase in the rate of infection is person-to-person transmission, while the main reason for the increase in mortality rate is the lack of a proven medical treatment specific to COVID-19 and the severe course of the disease in the elderly with low immunity. While a vast majority of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic or recover after displaying mild symptoms, hospitalization is required in 14% of cases and severe disease requiring intensive care admission is seen in 5% of the infected individuals. WHO and national guidelines do not make clear recommendations regarding treatments for symptomatic patients. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19, however supportive care, isolation and protective measures and experimental drugs/treatments are being used for the management of COVID-19. Medical treatments being used for COVID-19, aim to prevent the entry of the virus into the cell, to inhibit or reduce its replication, and to suppress the increased inflammatory response. In addition, “convalescent” plasma, which includes antibodies of patients who were completely recovered from the infection, is among the treatment options.
  3,517 180 2
Diagnostic value of ultrasound guided transthoracic tru-cut biopsy in thorax malignancies
Coskun Dogan, Seda Beyhan Sağmen, Elif Torun Parmaksız, Nesrin Kıral, Ali Fidan, Sevda Sener Cömert, Banu Salepçi
May-August 2018, 20(2):53-58
AIM: To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound (US) guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy (TTFNA) and US guided transthoracic tru-cut biopsy (TTTCB) in malignant thorax lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent US guided transthoracic biopsies between April 2014 and May 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients who were diagnosed as thoracic malignancy and both TTTCB and TTFNA performed for the same lesion were included in the study. The diagnostic accuracy of TTTCB, TTFNA and their combination were analyzed. The diagnostic accurracy of methods were statistically compared by McNemar Test. RESULTS: Thirty two patients were included in the study. Ultrasound guided TTFNA and/or TTTCB were diagnostic in 30 (93.8%) of them. TTFNA was diagnostic in 23 (%71.8), TTTCB were diagnostic in 26 (%81.2) of these pateints. Seven (77.7%) of 9 patients in which TTFNA was not diagnostic, TTTCB was diagnostic. The diagnostic accuracy was 71.8% and 81.2% for TTFNA and TTTCB, respectively. When TTTCB and TTFNA were performed consecutively in the same procedure, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 93.7%. There was no difference between the diagnostic accuracy of US-guided TTFNA and TTTCB (P=0.508). The diagnostic accuracy of combination of TTFNA and TTTCB was significantly higher than that of TTFNA alone (P=0.016). During the procedures, pneumothorax which did not require chest tube insertion was detected as complication in 1 case (3.1%). CONCLUSION: Diagnostic accuracy of US-guided TTFNA and TTTCB is high and has no superiority to each other. Combining both procedures under the quidence of US increases the diagnostic accuracy statistically significantly.
  2,936 473 -
Effect of low-intensity pulmonary rehabilitation program on quality of life and pulmonary functions in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Sule Cilekar, Baykal Tülek, Fikret Kanat, Mecit Süerdem, Funda Levendoglu, Ibrahim Tugrul Taşpınar
January-April 2019, 21(1):14-20
OBJECTİVES: The effectiveness of low-intensity pulmonary rehabilitation program applied patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of exercise capacity, dyspnea scale, life quality and respiratory muscle strength. METHODS: The study included 30 patients with COPD. The program was 3 days in a week, for a 6 weeks period between December 1st 2012 and August 31st 2013. Arterial blood gas (ABG), 6 minute walking test (SMWT), respiratory function tests and respiratory muscle strength were evaluated before and after treatment. St George's breathing questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to assess quality of life. The dyspnea scores were assessed by the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Patient approvals were obtained for the study. For analysis of results kolmogorov smirnov test, shapiro – wilk test, wilcoxon test and sample ttest were used. RESULTS: Of 30 patients participated in our study, 26 completed the treatment program. There were increases in SMWT distance (P = 0.049), forced expiratory volume in one second, and forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75) value (P < 0.05); and decreases in mMRC dyspnea scale score (P = 0.001), CAT score (p=0.003) and SGRQ score (P <= 0.001). Maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure values and ABG parameters did not show significant change. CONCLUSION: Low intensity pulmonary rehabilitation therapy has positive effects on exercise capacity, dyspnea scale, walking distance, and quality of life. Patient compliance was high in this treatment modality so according to our study results, low intensity pulmonary rehabilitation treatment can be prefer to high intensity pulmonary rehabilitation treatment in COPD.
  2,952 410 2
How much are we aware of the increase in accompanying comorbidities in sarcoidosis?
Meltem Agca, Fatma Tokgöz Akyil, Ayşegül Berk, Sümeyye Alparslan Bekir, Dildar Duman, Merve Hörmet, Oğuzhan Akman, Tülin Sevim
May-August 2018, 20(2):70-77
OBJECTIVE: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation. It is reported that the frequency of other inflammatory and malignant diseases increases. The primary objective of the study is to determine the types of comorbid diseases and their frequency, and whether the risk of malignancies and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid increases. The secondary objective is to identify the factors related to the comorbidities frequently detected. METHODS: The files of 694 patients who had the diagnosis of sarcoidosis between1998-2016 were evaluated. The frequency of comorbid diseases recorded was compared to the data of our country. RESULTS: Among the patients, 487 (70%) were female, and the mean age at diagnosis was 42.9 ± 11.8 (18-87). In 490 patients (70%) at least one comorbidity was detected. The most frequently detected comorbidities were systemic hypertension (22%), hepatosteatosis (16.9%), diabetes mellitus (16.4%), thyroid diseases (13.1%), and asthma (12%). Malignancy was found in a ratio of 4.0%, rheumatoid arthritis in 2.2%. The comparison to the frequencies across the country showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, asthma, malignancy, and rheumatoid arthritis was higher. Diabetes, thyroid diseases, asthma were more frequent in women. The mean age of patients in which diabetes, thyroid diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis or malignancy was detected as a comorbidity was higher than those without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities frequently occur among sarcoidosis patients, and the frequency of diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, asthma, malignancy, and rheumatoid arthritis is higher than the data of the country.
  3,025 333 -
Does subglottic secretion drainage prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia?
Aysegul Erinc, Hatice Kutbay Ozcelik, Burcu Arpinar Yigitbas, Sibel Yurt, Filiz Kosar
September-December 2018, 20(3):122-127
AIM: To compare the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for reasons other than pneumonia and followed up under mechanical ventilation either with standard endotracheal tubes or endotracheal tubes with subglottic secretion drainage (SSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the ICU between April 2012 and January 2013 were prospectively and sequentially randomized to standard endotracheal and SSD intubation groups. Patients with pulmonary infection at ICU admission were excluded. Pulmonary imaging, blood, and sputum cultures were routinely screened, and pleural fluid and bronchial lavage examinations were done on demand. RESULTS: Mean age, gender distribution, APACHE II scores, duration of mechanical ventilation, and follow-up of patients with standard (n = 30) and SSD (n = 12) intubation tubes were similar; 71 ± 10.4 versus 64.4 ± 13.9 years (P > 0.05), male/female 18/12 versus 9/3 (P > 0.05), APACHE II scores 20.2 ± 3.8 versus 17.0 ± 3.8 (P = 0.02), 15.9 ± 11.5 versus 11.0 ± 8.1 days (P > 0.05), and 18.0 ± 12.4 versus 15.5 ± 12.2 days (P > 0.05), respectively. The incidence of VAP was similar in both groups (36.7% vs. 33.3%, P > 0.05, in standard vs. SSD groups, respectively). The mortality rate was higher in the standard intubation group, but the difference was not statistically significant (70% vs. 41%, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to standard endotracheal intubation, intubation with SSD tubes was not associated with an improvement in the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the ICU, incidence of VAP, and mortality rate. Due to the limited number of patients included in this study, the results have to be confirmed in larger studies on more patients.
  2,770 399 -
Frequency and duration of smoking scenes in Turkish movies
Nazmi Bilir, Hilal Ozcebe, Sule Akcay, Elif Babaoglu, Sema Canbakan, Burcu Cirit, Ozlem Ercen Diken, Tijen Sengezer
September-December 2018, 20(3):128-132
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive tobacco control law in Turkey bans advertisement, promotion of tobacco products and sponsorship by the tobacco industry. Advertisement of tobacco products was banned on television, billboards and press media, but not on movie films. METHODS: To evaluate the frequency and duration of smoking in the movies, 60 most watched Turkish films which were on the vision during the second half of 2016 were determined for this descriptive study. Two young males having a university degree were trained on the aim and methodology of the study. Then the two observers viewed the films independently and recorded smoking scenes or direct appearance of tobacco products on a standard form. RESULTS: There were tobacco products or smoking views in 36 (60%) out of total 60 movies. In these movies there were 4.75 times tobacco occurrences as an average (median 3). Average duration of smoking occurrences was almost 3.5 min (198 s). Smokers were mostly main characters and smoking occurrences were mostly in exciting or romantic atmosphere, which are attractive for young people. DISCUSSION: In the light of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (Article 13), smoking scenes in movies are considered as kind of tobacco advertisement and promotion, which influences smoking behavior particularly the young people. Therefore, control and prevention of smoking occurrences in movies are important for the protection of children and young people to start smoking. Some health warnings and anti-tobacco messages may be placed in the movies, to reduce tobacco views in the movies.
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The approach to community-acquired pneumonia: A survey study
Berna Akinci Ozyurek, Arzu Erturk, Yusuf Aydemir, Nazan Sen, Dursun Alizoroglu, Mustafa Hikmet Ozhan
May-August 2018, 20(2):93-98
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which is often seen in daily practice, is a lower respiratory tract and pulmonary parenchyma infection which develops in society and daily life with community-acquired pathogens in individuals with no known immune failure. Delay in the treatment of pneumonia is known to increase morbidity and mortality. Various scoring systems are currently used in the identification of treatment groups in pneumonia. With the aim of evaluating the approach to CAP cases, the infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Working Group of the Turkish Respiratory Research Association (TUSAD) prepared a 22-item questionnaire. RESULTS: The survey was published on the TUSAD official website between July 2013 and June 2016. A total of 78 individuals responded to the questionnaire on the website. CONCLUSION: The responses to the questionnaire could indicate the way forward for new guidelines for physicians in respect of the approach to CAP.
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Third-hand smoke exposure and results
Emine Arguder
May-August 2019, 21(2):81-86
Diseases and deaths due to smoking are still a major public health problem, which is still the leading cause of death in the world. Today, the harmful effects of active smoking and second hand cigarette smoke on health are clearly known. However, the concept of third-hand smoke (THS) exposure, a new concept, is a relatively new definition in the area of environmental and public health. The third-hand smoke (THS) consists of residual cigarette smoke gases and particles that settle on the surface. Studies evaluating the presence of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in house dust samples have shown that THS is an important source of exposure to TSNA. Investigations on animals estimating human exposure, it has been found that THS contains tobacco smoke compounds, which can stay for months on internal surfaces and in dust for months, and that it is re-released into the air as gaseous. In addition, surface chemicals in the surroundings and in dust can produce additional toxins as a result of various chemical reactions. Although it is premature to estimate the health impacts of THS as a whole, the health effects of TSNAs have been previously reported in the literature. Future studies should be directed at investigating the biological effects and consequences of THS on humans. This article will address the implications of THS exposure and the results of current studies conducted in this area.
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The value of preoperative pulmonary assessment in predicting postoperative pulmonary complications
Ozlem Ercen Diken, Nevin Fazlıoǧlu, Nurhan Sarıoǧlu, Nalan Ogan, Nafiye Yılmaz, Hakan Tanrıverdi, Aysun Şengül, Emre Demir, Akif Turna, Arzu Mirici
January-April 2019, 21(1):29-37
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the preoperative parameters that may predict postoperative pulmonary complications (POPCs) and the value of some current practical indexes in predicting POPCs. MATERIALS and METHODS: Our study is a retrospective cohort study carried out in 9 different centers. Patients admitted to the chest diseases outpatient clinic for preoperative evaluation were followed up during the 6-month study period. Patients with or without postoperative complications were evaluated retrospectively, and the effect of some parameters and indexes recorded during the preoperative evaluation of chest diseases on POPC development was investigated statistically. RESULTS: A total of 307 patients were included in the study. POPCs were observed in 100 patients (32.6%). About 13% of these complications were respiratory tract infections, 59% were respiratory failure, 45% were pleural effusion, and 42% were atelectasis, which were the most common pulmonary complications. The probability of experiencing POPCs by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is 2.5 (1.18–5.67) times more than those without COPD. We determined that patients with the history of upper respiratory tract infection during the preoperative period are 5.3 times more likely to have POPCs; similarly, the number was 4.7 for patients undergoing cardiac operation and 3.3 for patients with interstitial infiltration. CONCLUSION: The risk of pulmonary complications was higher for those with the history of upper respiratory tract infection during the preoperative period, those undergoing cardiac surgery, those with the shortness of breath, those with the history of COPD, and those with the reticular/interstitial infiltrations in the chest X-ray. These parameters should be examined carefully in the preoperative period and should be careful in terms of pulmonary complications that may develop during the postoperative period.
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